INFO Bananas Genera

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Naturally, wild bananas are separated into 5 subgenera, these are Eumusa (species such as Musa acuminata, M. basjoo, M. sikkimensis belong to this group), Rhodochalmys (species such as M. ornata, M. velutina, M. mannii...), Callimusa (M. coccinea, M. gracilis, M. campestris...), Australimusa (M. textilis, M. maclayi, M. jackeyi...) and Ingentimusa (with a single known species, M. ingens). There are a few exceptions, such as M. beccarii which has 2n=18. Ensete and Musella both also have 2n=18.

Eumusa and Rhodochlamys both have the chromosome counts of 2n=22, this means that have 2 sets of DNA per cell (like nearly all living things) with 11 chromosomes (2x11=22). Callimusa and Australimusa have 10 chromosomes (2n=20) and Ingentimusa has 7 chromosomes (2n=14). To have it make sense on a basic level, you can think of it as that those with the same chromosome counts may cross with each other and are closer related to each other than to those belonging in the other subgenera.

Edible bananas almost exclusively come from the Eumusa group , mainly from Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. Edible bananas are not however though, varieties of the wild species. They are simply derived from them and through thousands of years of hybridization, mutation and selection, they have become a wide group on thier own. Many are triploids (AAA, AAB, opposed to wild plants which are diploids), this means they have 3 sets of DNA, each with 11 chromosome like normal Eumusa but, and also tetraploids which have 4 sets (groups such as AAAB, ABBT...). Also there are edible diploids as well which did not go through as much change from the original wild plants (groups AA, AB, AS).

There is a small group of edible bananas that come from Australimusa, the Feh'i group, they evolved completely separate from those in the Eumusa group and are not well studied.