Had to get some zzz's... FROST
will kill sugarcane. However, you have an out: In Florida, the growers cut the cane stalks down to ground level (prior to cold temperature extremes) and cover the rows with mounds of dirt. The base of the cane, therefore, survives & sends up new Ratoons (young canes) from the buds about the base of the plant.
You're right on 2 counts:
1. Your long warm periods will be extremely advantageous
2. Water Will be a problem.
From seed, you can get a 2-4 pound (15% sugar) stalk within 12 months of the original planting date. -- If you start by planting a Ratoon (small plant), you can get the same results in just 9-11 months.
Temperature & Moisture : Sugarcane does best at a humid 70-90 degrees F.
I use two methods with my Australian tree fern to combat the humidity problem.
1. Frequent spraying using a water bottle.
2. I fill a large, shallow container (ie. artificial plastic fish pond) with water & put the fern beside it. The water, by evaporation in the heat, produces the necessary humid conditions for the plant. You might try planting the Cane around such containers.
Curious: Will you be growing a Chewing, Crystal, or Syrup variety?